What are the common IVF medications?

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There are a variety of medicines used in the IVF process. They can be given orally or in injectable form. Women age and test results help the prescriber to prescribe exact medication for the process. Visit here for more IVF medications information.

Clomiphene citrate

Clomiphene consist of geometric isomers enclomiphene and zuclomiphene that attach to estrogen receptors and cause ovulation by elevating the levels of pituitary gonadotropins (Follicle stimulating hormone).

The common brand names are Clomid® and Serophene®. These medicines are generally used to enhance process of ovulation in female having, long cycles or infrequent periods.

The initial dose of Clomiphene is 50mg per day for about five days, starting on the 5th day of the menstrual cycle. If ovulation still not occur, the dose can be increased. However, the risks of harmful effects also rise with increased dosage. American Society of Reproductive Medicine describes, Clomiphene is recommended for just five to six cycles.

It shows excellent absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. It is commonly prescribed orally for a period of six months. Clomiphene limits the number of oocytes so it cannot be used with GnRH analog to avoid premature luteinization.

Side effects of Clomiphene

  • Increase chances of Multiple Births
  • Incidence of miscarriage
  • Mood swings and depression
  • Hot flashes and breast tenderness
  • Headaches
  • Vision problems
  • Nausea

Synthetic Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 

Intramuscular injection of HCG is given to stimulate the ovulation. It is generally used in combination with other medications for the purpose of ovulation induction. Pregnyl®, Profasi® Novarel®, and Ovidrel® are conventional human chorionic gonadotropin medicines used for ovulation.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

The injection of FSH is given by subcutaneous route so that it bypasses the pituitary and hypothalamus to boost the follicle growth in the ovaries.

It is available under the brand names Gonal-F, Bravelle, and Follistim.

Highly Purified FSH:  The third generation of FSH which have more FSH than urofollitropin. It is also administered SC rather than IM.

Side effects of FSH:

  • Miscarriage 
  • Multiple Births
  • Rash at the injection site and swelling
  • Premature delivery
  • Depression and mood swings
  • Breast tenderness
  • Hyperstimulation syndrome such as enlarged ovaries, bloating and abdominal pain.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

To stimulate the pituitary gland for increase secretions of LH and FSH the injection of GnRH can be given. Commonly available brands such as Lutrepulse® and Factrel®.

Harmful effects of GnRH

  • Multiple births
  • Headaches and nausea
  • Chances of hyperstimulation

Human Menopausal Gonadotropins (hMG)

The injection carries equal quantities of LH and FSH. The purpose of the injection is to stimulate ovaries to form many eggs in one cycle.

The popular brands include Menopur® and Repronex®, which are most potent among current medicines used today.

Medications Are Used to Prevent Premature Ovulation:

GnRH Agonists:

To produce the more quantity of eggs GnRH agonists are given below the skin. The common brands are Lupron® and Zoladex®, while Synarel® is a nasal spray.

GnRH Antagonists: 

These medications are prescribed to control the premature ovulation. The common brand names include Cetrotide® and Ganirelix Acetate®. Three to four days’ administration is necessary.

Side effects:

  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • Depression and mood swings
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Dryness of vagina
  • Reduced breast size
  • Painful intercourse
  • Hot flashes
  • Loss of bone density
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